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Mechanics of Fluids

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Module 1: Introduction: Fluids and continuum, Physical properties of fluids, density, specific weight, vapour pressure, Newton’s law of viscosity. Ideal and real fluids, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Fluid Statics- Pressure-density-height relationship, manometers, pressure on plane and curved surfaces, center of pressure, buoyancy, stability of immersed and floating bodies, fluid masses subjected to uniform accelerations, measurement of pressure. .

Module 2: Kinematics of fluid flow: Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, classification of fluid flow, 1-D, 2-D and 3-D flow, steady, unsteady, uniform, non-uniform, laminar, turbulent, rotational, irrotational flows, stream lines, path lines, streak lines, stream tubes, velocity and acceleration in fluid, circulation and vorticity, stream function and potential function, Laplace equation, equipotential lines, flow nets, uses and limitations. .

Module 3: Control volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy, Equations of fluid dynamics: Differential equations of mass, energy and momentum (Euler’s equation), Navier-Stokes equations (without proof) in cartesian co-ordinates. Dynamics of Fluid flow: Bernoulli’s equation, Energies in flowing fluid, head, pressure, dynamic, static and total head, Venturi and Orifice meters, Notches and Weirs (description only for notches and weirs). Hydraulic coefficients, Velocity measurements: Pitot tube and Pitot-static tube.

Module 4: Pipe Flow: Viscous flow: Reynolds experiment to classify laminar and turbulent flows, significance of Reynolds number, critical Reynolds number, shear stress and velocity distribution in a pipe, law of fluid friction, head loss due to friction, Hagen Poiseuille equation. Turbulent flow: Darcy- Weisbach equation, Chezy’s equation Moody’s chart, Major and minor energy losses, hydraulic gradient and total energy line, flow through long pipes, pipes in series, pipes in parallel, equivalent pipe, siphon, transmission of power through pipes, efficiency of transmission, Water hammer, Cavitation.

Module 5: Boundary Layer : Growth of boundary layer over a flat plate and definition of boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness, momentum thickness and energy thickness, laminar and turbulent boundary layers, laminar sub layer, velocity profile, Von- Karman momentum integral equations for the boundary layers, calculation of drag, separation of boundary and methods of control. Dimensional Analysis: Dimensional analysis, Buckingham’s theorem, important non dimensional numbers and their significance, geometric, Kinematic and dynamic similarity, model studies. Froude, Reynolds, Weber, Cauchy and Mach laws- Applications and limitations of model testing, simple problems only

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